Storm Event

“A great inundation of the sea occurred throughout England, ‘and most of all in the Thames’; sea-walls were broken, countless animals drowned, and fertile land was ruined by salt”

Severity ? 3

Source:

This event was associated with a storm which blew from the west, then veered north, which produced a storm surge that affected north sea coasts, including Zeeland, Flanders and England (Gottschalk, 1971).

Pathway:

Britton (1937) reported that sea walls were broken down and breached across England, but particularly in the vicinity of the Thames estuary.

Receptor and Consequence:

The coastal flood event was reported by many of the manors in the Thames estuary as having killed livestock; in Faversham, Kent, 104 yearling sheep were lost to the flood and a man was hired to retrieve their pelts to be sold. The flood led to a redirection of water and fish movement in marshes and also disproportionate value of marsh lands. Great Wakering in Essex was partially flooded. Expenditure on sea-walls and marshland drainage, which had been running at between £1 and £5 per year over the previous decade, surged to £36 2s. 8d. Several thousand man-days of labour were expended in repairing and heightening sea-walls over the following three years (Galloway, 2009).

Summary table:

Loss of life *
Residential property Manor of Great Wakering in Essex was partially flooded
Evacuation & Rescue *
   
Cost *
Ports *
Transport *
Energy *
Public services *
Water & wastewater *
Livestock Manors reported death of livestock; in Faversham, Kent, 104 yearling sheep were drowned
Agricultural land Winter barley crop was lost. Salt-water flooding ruined fertile land
   
Coastal erosion *
Natural environment The flow of water was disturbed in marshes, due to flooding, leading to a change in the movement of fish
Cultural heritage *
Coastal defences Sea walls breached in Thames estuary

*No known sources of information available

References

  1. Gottschalk M. K. E. (1971). Stormvloeden En Riveroverstromingen In Nederland Deel 1- De Period Voor 1400. Assen: Van Gorcum.
  2. Britton C. E. (1937) A Meteorological Chronology To A.D. 1450 Geophysical Memoirs, 70. London: H. M. Stationary Office. 177pp.
  3. Galloway, J. A. (2009). Storm flooding, coastal defence and land use around the Thames estuary and tidal river c. 1250-1450. Retrieved [06/08/2018] from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1016/j.jmedhist.2008.12.001