Storm Event

The tide rose so high that the Caul was obliterated.

Severity ? 3


No known sources of information.


The high tide ‘swept with destructive force’ up the estuaries of rivers on the west coast and Scotland. The already swollen rivers (from rain prior to the event) rose above their embankments by up to 3 ft. Sea walls were also overtopped in Carlaverock.

Receptor and Consequence:

This event was associated with coastal flooding in Cumbrian coastal towns Arnside, Sandside, Grange over Sands, Milnthorpe, Kirkby in Furness, Foulshaw and Carnforth of Lancashire (Zong and Tooley, 1997). The floodwater reached within 2 ft of the top of the viaduct connecting Annan (Scotland) and the Cumbrian coast – a height of 33 ft (Hickey, 1997).

There was extensive flooding in Scotland, exacerbated as the high tide followed heavy rain. Propertied were inundated in Kingholm, Carsethorn and Glencaple, though the latter was limited to gardens. Agricultural land was submerged at farms in East Park, Hollands, Newfield, Nether Locharwoods, Stanhope (Carlaverock), Greenmerse (Kirkconnel) and other areas in Glencaple. Kingholm and Glencaple quays were inundated, as well as a number of roads across Scotland. The force of the tide damaged the sea wall in Carlaverock, notably at Nether Locharwoods, and the Caul suspension bridge was ‘obliterated’ (Hickey, 1997).

Summary table:

Loss of life *
Residential property Homes inundated in Kingholm and Carsethorn. Property fooding in Glencaple limited to gardens
Evacuation & Rescue *
Cost *
Ports Quay flooded in Glencaple and Kingholm
Transport Suspension bridge ‘The Caul’ was destroyed in Dumfries. Roads inundated in Glencaple
Energy *
Public services *
Water & wastewater *
Livestock *
Agricultural land A number of farms flooded in Glencaple, Troqueer and Carlaverock
Coastal erosion *
Natural environment *
Cultural heritage *
Coastal defences Sea bank thrown down at Nether Locharwoods, Carlaverock


  1. Zong, Y. & Tooley, M. J. A. (2003). Historical Record of Coastal Floods in Britain: Frequencies and Associated Storm Tracks. Natural Hazards, 29, 13–36.
  2. Hickey, K. R. (1997). Documentary records of coastal storms in Scotland, 1500-1991 A.D. Retrieved from